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Executive Summary Report to Health Minister Saudi Arabia

Introduction
The vending machines are popping up everywhere in Saudi Arabia especially about the fast foods joints. The fact that they present us with a fast opportunity to get something that was unplanned to eat makes them acceptable in the society. The fast rate at which the community is growing and the fact that people have even lesser time to prepare for meals especially due to the planning attribute makes the emergence of these fast food vending machines extremely famous. The growing number of fast foods vending machines in Saudi Arabian hospitals is raising major concerns about the daily visitors to these facilities. These vending machines offer the patients and the other visitors to the facilities an easy way to obtain a quick snack for a few coins instead of having to carry food from home as well as having to go too far areas in search of a meal. However, the disadvantages that these machines present are a major concern that has led to the idea of replacing these machines with the healthy juice vending machines. The growth trend of health complications especially the case of child obesity has become a global problem and the Saudi Arabian nation is trying to look for the cases as well as solutions to the health trends.

Building the Executive Report Body
Vending machines offer one of the most convenient options that people have in accessing foods as well as drinks without having to travel for long distances looking for a shop or having to make plans of hat they are going to eat. Traditionally, these bending machines have been strategically located in areas that receive traffic entailing people who want quick solutions to their hunger and thirst needs. Some of these locations encompass the hospitals targeting the waiting customers, fast food joints where people go to get quick fixes as well as schools targeting the large population of students with pocket changes among others (Chahoud and Carter, 2006). The convenience that these unhealthy fast food joints come with grave adverse heath repercussions for the consumers of the products found in these machines.

Statistics indicate that the attainment of an optimally healthy heart demands that one should not consume more than 1500 milligrams of sodium on a daily basis. The human body demands sodium in the diet to guarantee that attainment of normal body fluid balance, with the consuming too much sodium increasing the likelihood of high blood pressure and the consequent risk of stroke. The consumption of junk foods from the unhealthy fast food vending machines as potato chips, pepperoni pizza is high in sodium and increases an individual’s risk of stroke. The journal of cerebral circulation reveals that there is an 18% increase in the risk of stroke for every 500 milligrams of sodium that an individual consumes above the recommendation (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630).

There is the trend on the cropping up of vending machines all over Saudi Arabia is one of the factors that has resulted in the development of this executive summary (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). Most of these vending machines contain most products that are unhealthy such as the sugary products and the numerous other products that are promoting the unhealthy trend in the country. The fatty and sugary products that most of the vending machines provide makes it imperative that measures to address the trend are put in place. The fact that the unhealthy vending machines have encroached most of the hospitals in Saudi Arabia raises the concern about the healthy eating subject considering that the healthy facilities are supposed to enhance the health of their clients. The additional demerit relating to the growth of the unhealthy vending machines in Saudi Arabia is the fact that they mostly contain junk foods that are responsible for numerous lifestyle diseases. Some of these health challenges that the unhealthy fast food vending machines expose the population to include increasing the risks of stroke, tooth decay, gastrointestinal problems and weight gain among others. The introduction and the consequent replacement of the unhealthy vending machines that have become a culture in Saudi in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints are going to have an extremely beneficial attribute to the entire Saudi Arabian population.

The junk food that is available via the unhealthy fast food vending machines results in weight gain and other cases obesity. The common statics indicates that it takes an extra 3,500 calories in an individual’s diet every day to gain 1 pound of weight gain. Tooth decay as the additional result of the unhealthy fast food vending machines follows that a diet that is rich in sugary products increases and individual’s likelihood of developing cavities. The occurrence of tooth decay follows the breakdown of the enamel, which is the protective coating on teeth (Unhealthy Foods Bulk Of School Vending Machine Choices, p7). The eating of junk food that is high in the sugar content as candy as well as baked goods coats the mouth, gums, tongue and teeth with sugar, the component that attacks the enamel resulting in tooth decay and cavities.

Consumption of too much junk foods products can result in gastrointestinal challenges in that the processed foods contain very little if any dietary fiber. It is imperative that one including fiber in the diet to keep those bowels moving and if one did not eat the adequate amount of fiber, there is a high likelihood of developing constipation.

Most institutions are currently addressing the state of the vending machines in their vicinities containing the unhealthy products that are responsible for the health challenges. Starting the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines in hospitals as well as the other fast food joints in Saudi Arabia with fresh juice vending machines presents an opportunity for the county to improve the wellbeing of its citizenry. The successful realization of a healthy population by the Saudi Arabia population relies on the ability of the hospitals administration to ban the sale of sugary and fatty foods in the vending machines available in the facilities (Wiecha, Jean L., et al., 1624-1630). The campaign needs to extend to the other regions that have the selling of fast foods as they are the main proponents of the unhealthy eating that is accessed through these vending machines.

Strength
The continued growth of the trend for healthy foods has seen an increase in the consumption of vegetables and fruits during the meals as well as breaks, particularly revolving around the consumption of fruit juices and the freshly squeezed juice. Through the promotion of the replacement of the unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice vending machines, the hospitals in Saudi Arabia will be able to improve the nutritional offerings in their cafeterias, vending machines as well as the meals that the patients consume (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 26-50). The growth in the awareness of the number of population that is aware of the healthy negative benefits associated with the unhealthy fast food vending machines implies that the idea of the fresh juice is going to be accepted. Consequently, there has been an escalation in the costs of accessing healthcare in Saudi Arabia as a result of the poor eating habits implies that the stakeholders in the healthcare sector are going to support the policy on the replacement of the unhealthy foods. Starting the change in hospitals offers the best opportunity to undertake mass education as the information they get comes from the sources that they trust with their health (Vending Machines in Hospitals – Are They Healthy, 2016). Additionally the need to cut on the hospital budgetary allocation by the government makes the policies relating to the replacement of these unhealthy vending machines with the fresh juice ones a success due to the involvement of the national leaders.

Thus, the overall attribute that supports the adoption of the fresh juice vending machines in hospitals, as well as the other fast foods joints, include the fact that the Saudi Arabia population is going to benefit from the realization of a healthy life. The reduction in the number of strokes, tooth decays, and obesity among the residents of Saudi Arabia will make the idea acceptable to the residents. The desire by the government to reduce their allocation to the healthy sector additionally implies that the strategy will receive the support of the government.

Weakness Area
The main weakness in the implementations of the fresh juice vending in Saudi Arabian hospitals as well as the other parts that sell fast foods is the fact that there is the lack of mass information. The lack of information to the masses on the health challenges that these unhealthy fast food vending machines present to them make it hard for them to make the informed decisions relating to their health benefits. Additionally the fact that the fresh juice vending machines are the a new topic in Saudi Arabia implies that the idea will take the time to gain track while the population will still be consuming the unhealthy products available in the fast food vending machines. The few fresh juice machines that are available in the regions additionally make it impossible for all the people with the desire to consume the healthy products gaining access to the fresh juice. The fact that the fresh juice vending machine is currently offering the fresh juice products is an additional attribute that limits its application as the users need other products other than the juice.

Opportunity Available Which Outside Abroad
The growing number of schools that are calling for healthy eating of their students offers an opportunity for the product. By liaising with the school administrations, we will be able to install the machines in the schools, an attribute that offers significant revenues. The numerous fast foods joints that are available in the region additionally present an opportunity that we will be exploiting. We will be stocking these fast food joint vending machines without fresh juice products, thus cutting the costs we would have incurred in installing the machines ourselves (Chahoud and Carter, 2014). The costs we save through this attribute will be used in stocking more vending machines in the fast joints, especially in Jeddah. The growing bad reputation of the fast foods joints offering spoilt products is an additional opportunity we will be taking advantage of by making our vending machines self-services joints that the customers serve themselves. The exponential growth of the fast food lovers in Saudi Arabia is an opportunity that offers a huge market for our fresh juice products.

Risks
The possible risk we run encountering is the court suits that the owners of the fast foods joints may make in barring us from using their machines, an attribute that will cost us market accessibility. Additionally, the stringent laws in Saudi Arabia regarding the establishment of new businesses are additionally a risk that could make us take longer as we wait for licensure. The penetration of the already existing fast food vendors into the fresh juice idea is an attribute that will significantly eat into our revenues as they already have the infrastructure.

Chapter 11 and Chapter 12

Chapter 11 Questions
Define a stockholder and stakeholder. What is the difference between the two?

A stockholder is an individual with the claim over owning part of the company in such a way that he/she has ownership of the stock and has an influence on the finance of the corporation. A stockholder can at the time be referred to as the shareholder. A stakeholder, on the other hand, is an individual with the interests of the organization or corporation. And for this case, the stakeholders has some other interests other than the stock appreciation of the Corporation (Lindsay, 2016).

A stockholder is an individually that will take part in the electing the directors of the company and another small number of additional issues that he/she can handle. At the same time, a stockholder is entitled to dividends. A stockholder can be part of the stakeholders group, but a stakeholder is not regarded as stockholders. The positions outlined that stockholding is within stakeholding.

A stakeholder is any individually that represents a wide group of the persons with the interest in the operations (success or failure) of the company. The group has a big impact on the general operations of the company as it is wide and it includes the stockholders (shareholders), the creditors, customers, the local community, employees and the government. A stakeholder takes greatly part in the management of the corporations as their influence brings about the loss or the decline in the organization performance. They have a high impact on the decisions undertaken within the business.

What process does a company go through to respond to stakeholder concerns? What are the steps of this process?

In the operations and general management of an organization, the stakeholders play a crucial role as they take part in the decision-making process. To get the stakeholders concerns responded to by the managers, different methods can be applied. However, based on the role they play engagement is the most reliable principle to go about the task. Once they are engaged, the creation and the maintenance of the business value are upheld. The stakeholders’ engagements strategy is defined by the social business relationship (BSR) background. The strategy can be implemented through five distinctive steps of engagement strategy (set), stakeholder mapping (Define), Preparation (Focus), Engagement (Conduct), and Action Plan (Identify).

The engagement strategy comes before understanding that engaging stakeholders mean taking and treating the issues and opinions of the stakeholders as the outside concerns.

Stakeholders mapping stage defines the collaborative undertaking of research and conducting a discussion to have the identification of the key list of the company stakeholders. The mapping is done through the steps of identifying, analyzing, mapping and prioritizing. The success of the stakeholders’ identification will depend on the knowledge of the participants in the research and discussion.

The preparation stage once more defines the examination of the identified organization stakeholders to have a good understanding of their concerns, positions, and interests. The follow-up step of identifying is the determination of the best method of incorporating the concerns within eh company with the best understanding of the risks associated with the engagement. This defines the action plan which upholds to the system of the participant (managers) that goes by the engagement, communicating and informing. Engaging defines the stakeholders, communication, on the other hand, defines the stakeholders with the highest level of willingness to engage and inform defines the seeking of the information than conversations (Morris & Baddache, 2012).

What is the agency problem? What are the governance mechanisms that can be put in place to defend from this problem?

An agency problem can be defined as the conflict of interest that may exist between the management of the organization and the stockholders of the company. In this case, the managers within the management bracket define the agents who have the official task of making sound decisions that will get to maximize the profits (dividends) to the stockholders.

The corporate governance comes in to provide the balance through the sharing of powers amongst the directors, management and the stockholders with the aim to maximize the shareholder value and protect the stakeholder’s interest. The way to go about the agency problem is to ensure that the company complies with local, state and federal statutes. Establish some standards that should comply. Thirdly, implement best practices as suggested by the professional organizations.

Describe internal controls and strategies that can be implemented to ensure ethical behavior within a company.

The development of an ethics program within the organization will get the ethical behavior implemented. The program should get done through the establishing, communicating and the monitoring of the ethical values. The values are expected to characterize the company history, culture, and the operating system. The program should accommodate the codes of conduct to the employees.

Develop ethical standards and take the employees through the training about the standards. Also, ensure that the employees comply with the ethics, and this can be measured through the comparison of the ethical employee performance.

Chapter 12 Questions
How can organizational design contribute to competitive advantage?
There are so many ways in which an organization can be structured based on the objectives of the organization. An organization is usually referred to as a group of entities which operate to achieve the same common goal or goals. The structure of any organization influences the performance of the organization. Organizational structures offer the capability to specify responsibilities for assorted functions and processes to entities including workgroup, individuals, branch, and department. People who operate as individuals are often hired for specified time periods in organizational structures to carry out contracts of work, orders for work, permanent contract employment or even under program orders. Constantly increasing competitive pressure correlates with changing organizational structures and the involved processes to improve the competitive advantage of the organizations. The existence of skills and resources that are better outside the organization increased application of the use of alliances, down scoping or outsourcing by firms tend to cause the firms to draw in the narrow scope of activities.

Describe how a strong organizational culture leads to transparency, ethics, and to competitive advantage within a company.

Effective organizational structures make better the relations of work among the several entities that exist within the organizations. This will improve the efficiency of carrying out activities within the organizational units and hence enables an organization to develop an order and control, which is important for the monitoring of various processes that exist in the firm. The organization, therefore, supports command for carrying on with a variety of orders and changes in the conditions for performance of work. The organization incorporates the use of skills from individuals to introduce ease of change and application of creativities. With the expansion of business, the chain of command becomes longer and hence expands the span of control. With age, the flexibility of the organization will reduce with the creativity fatiguing. This makes it necessary for the organizational structures to be often changed to accommodate recovery.

How does the implementation of functional structures lead to more organizational control and more effective strategic planning?

Organizational culture influences the way in which specialists in the organization think and carry out their responsibilities. It is influenced positively by important reconfiguration of the part played by human resources in the development of the organization. As a result of organizational culture, there is improved performance within organizations and increased flexibility in the demand of the market. A strong corporate culture is known as an imperative driver of innovation to forces from the outside.

The culture of a company is derived from the values, structures, assumptions which are essential for the survival of an organization in a given industry. Organizational culture is transparent to workers in the firm, investors, and customers. It sets the picture of the organization at present and in the future. The organizational culture creates a strong relationship with the group that is difficult to break. The culture can either be the strongest asset or the biggest liability to the organization. Its impact is more than talents present in an organization and apparently possesses significant influence on the goals of the organization.

Organizational culture assists in the development of ethics that are expected in an organization. This is because it outlines what each and every individual in the organization is expected. If well incorporated into the culture of the organization, the ethics are easily followed by the stakeholders in the firm as well as its employees and management. It also encourages transparency since all the individuals surrounding the organization can observe what the organization stands. This increases trust by customers and even investors since the organization becomes very easy to understand regarding operations and policies.

Organizational structure outlines how activities in an organization are directed to the achievement of the organizational goals through the allocation of tasks, supervision, and coordination. The organizational structure, therefore, serves as a way through which people see their organization and the environment of the organization. It influences the activities of the organization in ways such as the provision of the foundation on which the accepted standards of operation and procedure routines. This makes it a very important tool in the strategic planning. It also determines which members of the organization are given the role of making decisions which determine the extent to which their opinions affects the line of action to be taken by the organization.

Italian language and culture

THREE WORKS BY ANDREA PALLADIO
Andrea Palladio is among the foremost architects of his time. His works helped to change the face of the Renaissance architecture despite working during a time when the Council of tent aimed at reforming the religious architectures as per the Protestant Reform criticism as well as criticism from with the church itself. Thus, Palladio’s architectural designs were limited to a large extent. One of his work was the Basilica di San Pietro di Castello in Venice which was publicly commission buildings. Basilica di San Pietro di Castello is a building that dates from the 16th century. It was the cathedral church of the city. Andrea Palladio was nominated to provide ideas for additions and alterations of the prominent early architects of Venice. His work was to rebuild the interior and faced of St Pietro. The church has a large dome showing the ecclesiastical importance of the church. The drum supports the dome with rectangular windows for letting in light. The interior has a large nave at the central with Latin aisle. There is a transept crossing the church separating the presbytery from the navel.

However, few years later he was commissioned to construct a private chapel for the Barbaro brothers who became his central opportunity of having a perfect plan of the church. Tempietto Barbaro is, therefore, his most crucial work that is a vehicle for discussing his other entire central plan and understanding the theories of architectural planning during the Renaissance. The Barbaro brothers were the Venetian aristocrats prominent for their goal of establishing a humanistic society and educated in humanistic educations. The final architectural work was a product of Palladio’s and Marcantonio Barbaro ideas. The church’s location at the Barbaro estate bounded in the village of the Maser. Its primary purpose was to become a private chapel for the function of the village parish and the Barbaro (Figure 1). The churches plan design is from the Greek cross but in a smaller version of the chapel. It has a semi-circular dome and four arms (Figure 2).

The construction’s facade transports the viewer immediately to the Pantheon in Rome, with its portion and pediment fronting the great dome. There is minimal extravagant ornamentation inside the church. It has no paintings but white walls; the decorations comprise of the statuary. The function of the church to become the village parish was secondary to its purpose of being the Marc’antonio and his family mortuary chapel. Therefore, the church is constructed to bring in muted lighting, and its decorations are not over the top There are repeated sets of Corinthian columns within the triumphal arch motif replicated throughout the room (Weissmuller, 2007).

Il Redentore is another work by Palladio has the Aedicules that feature on the walls encrypted with the Barbaros’ patron saints pictures. The Il Redentore was Palladio’s idyllic church that he has always had in his mind. Palladio’s ideas and thought in designing the Il Redentore had their way in planning for the Tempietto Barbaro. Each feature in Il Redentore is well elevated showing the steps leading to the front entrance. The Il Redentore is a square shape outwardly but the inside there is a faint Greek cross plan that is more pronounced that the Tempietto. The front features of Il Redentore comprise of four engaged columns that are Tempiettos temple front. In general, the initial ideas that Palladio conceived for the Il Redentore were revived and rejuvenated in the construction of Tempietto Barbaro (Weismuller, 2007).

Other architects and their importance

Girolamo Savonarola was a friar Dominican, who preached in Florence in the Renaissance period. His preaching was to seek both political and spiritual reform. Savonarola preached against the materialistic lifestyle of Florence, which was the great center of literature, architecture, and Renaissance art. Sandro Botticelli during his time produced many volumes of paintings and drawings such as the ‘Divine Comedy’ manuscript by Dante. With Botticelli’s work were mainly church related.

For instance, the Adoration of the Magi’ (c.1481) provides heavy details with well elaborated architectural representations and expressive set of figures within religious contexts. He had a good reputation in religious art and was invited to work in decorating the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. By the turn of the century, he had readopted the Gothic principle and abandoned modern architecture in place of rural elements for framing subjects.

The Scrovegni Chapel Giotto di Bandon’s masterwork that he completed in 1305 in Padua, Italy for the Enrich Scrovegni family. The forgoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of the chapel relate to an emotional and complex narrative of the lives of Jesus and Mary. The narrative outlook forms the genius aspect of this chapel. Bandon’s settings and themes are exclusively religious as seen in the ionic scenes that depict Jesus, Mary, and Joachim.

Scrovegni Chapel

Leon Battista Alberti in 1435 gave the first theory about the modern day linear perspective ion his book the painting. This new system has a major impact on measurements in paintings to many artists after 1435. The artist created a floor on the ground of the painting and drew another receding grid to guide the reflective scale on other elements in the picture. It was the first step that painting was not just for the purpose of God’s glorifications as it was the case of the Medieval Europe. Instead, painting during the Renaissance was for the people looking at the painting.