Italian language and culture

THREE WORKS BY ANDREA PALLADIO
Andrea Palladio is among the foremost architects of his time. His works helped to change the face of the Renaissance architecture despite working during a time when the Council of tent aimed at reforming the religious architectures as per the Protestant Reform criticism as well as criticism from with the church itself. Thus, Palladio’s architectural designs were limited to a large extent. One of his work was the Basilica di San Pietro di Castello in Venice which was publicly commission buildings. Basilica di San Pietro di Castello is a building that dates from the 16th century. It was the cathedral church of the city. Andrea Palladio was nominated to provide ideas for additions and alterations of the prominent early architects of Venice. His work was to rebuild the interior and faced of St Pietro. The church has a large dome showing the ecclesiastical importance of the church. The drum supports the dome with rectangular windows for letting in light. The interior has a large nave at the central with Latin aisle. There is a transept crossing the church separating the presbytery from the navel.

However, few years later he was commissioned to construct a private chapel for the Barbaro brothers who became his central opportunity of having a perfect plan of the church. Tempietto Barbaro is, therefore, his most crucial work that is a vehicle for discussing his other entire central plan and understanding the theories of architectural planning during the Renaissance. The Barbaro brothers were the Venetian aristocrats prominent for their goal of establishing a humanistic society and educated in humanistic educations. The final architectural work was a product of Palladio’s and Marcantonio Barbaro ideas. The church’s location at the Barbaro estate bounded in the village of the Maser. Its primary purpose was to become a private chapel for the function of the village parish and the Barbaro (Figure 1). The churches plan design is from the Greek cross but in a smaller version of the chapel. It has a semi-circular dome and four arms (Figure 2).

The construction’s facade transports the viewer immediately to the Pantheon in Rome, with its portion and pediment fronting the great dome. There is minimal extravagant ornamentation inside the church. It has no paintings but white walls; the decorations comprise of the statuary. The function of the church to become the village parish was secondary to its purpose of being the Marc’antonio and his family mortuary chapel. Therefore, the church is constructed to bring in muted lighting, and its decorations are not over the top There are repeated sets of Corinthian columns within the triumphal arch motif replicated throughout the room (Weissmuller, 2007).

Il Redentore is another work by Palladio has the Aedicules that feature on the walls encrypted with the Barbaros’ patron saints pictures. The Il Redentore was Palladio’s idyllic church that he has always had in his mind. Palladio’s ideas and thought in designing the Il Redentore had their way in planning for the Tempietto Barbaro. Each feature in Il Redentore is well elevated showing the steps leading to the front entrance. The Il Redentore is a square shape outwardly but the inside there is a faint Greek cross plan that is more pronounced that the Tempietto. The front features of Il Redentore comprise of four engaged columns that are Tempiettos temple front. In general, the initial ideas that Palladio conceived for the Il Redentore were revived and rejuvenated in the construction of Tempietto Barbaro (Weismuller, 2007).

Other architects and their importance

Girolamo Savonarola was a friar Dominican, who preached in Florence in the Renaissance period. His preaching was to seek both political and spiritual reform. Savonarola preached against the materialistic lifestyle of Florence, which was the great center of literature, architecture, and Renaissance art. Sandro Botticelli during his time produced many volumes of paintings and drawings such as the ‘Divine Comedy’ manuscript by Dante. With Botticelli’s work were mainly church related.

For instance, the Adoration of the Magi’ (c.1481) provides heavy details with well elaborated architectural representations and expressive set of figures within religious contexts. He had a good reputation in religious art and was invited to work in decorating the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. By the turn of the century, he had readopted the Gothic principle and abandoned modern architecture in place of rural elements for framing subjects.

The Scrovegni Chapel Giotto di Bandon’s masterwork that he completed in 1305 in Padua, Italy for the Enrich Scrovegni family. The forgoes that adorn the ceilings and walls of the chapel relate to an emotional and complex narrative of the lives of Jesus and Mary. The narrative outlook forms the genius aspect of this chapel. Bandon’s settings and themes are exclusively religious as seen in the ionic scenes that depict Jesus, Mary, and Joachim.

Scrovegni Chapel

Leon Battista Alberti in 1435 gave the first theory about the modern day linear perspective ion his book the painting. This new system has a major impact on measurements in paintings to many artists after 1435. The artist created a floor on the ground of the painting and drew another receding grid to guide the reflective scale on other elements in the picture. It was the first step that painting was not just for the purpose of God’s glorifications as it was the case of the Medieval Europe. Instead, painting during the Renaissance was for the people looking at the painting.

Plagiarism sites

Plagiarism and how we can apply math skills in Operation Research IME550

Different scholars have defined plagiarism in many different ways. However, all the scholars agree on one factor that plagiarism is a serious academic offence that attracts the highest penalties and punishment. It involves the theft of another person’s ideas or words, lack of acknowledging the source, poor quotation of sources, as well as presenting the work as own to instructors. Every author’s original work that gets expressed in some way gets considered as intellectual property that is under the protection of the copyright laws of the United States. This offence is serious, and all scholars and learners should be keen on avoiding it by all means. Ways of preventing plagiarism include consultations with the professor or lecturer, adequately planning for a paper or book in advance, acknowledging sources and checking individual papers in plagiarism sites.

Mathematics is an important subject in all disciplines and in pursuing all careers; hence vital to have excellent performance in the subject. However, this is not the case as students always perform poorly and get disadvantaged in many ways. There are various Math study skills that when adopted would result in high grades in Mathematics courses including IME550. The list gets provided below together with the correct approach to problem-solving in Mathematics, studying Math and undertaking Math tests.

Math study skills for better grades entail the on absenteeism to Math classes. It gets attributed to several reasons such as the factor that the instructors cover large Math sections in one class and do Math examples during lessons. Hence, missing a single class would result in losing significantly. The instructors also formulate the end of academic year Math tests using the material covered in class, thus attending every day gives a student an added advantage. Attending all classes together with completing homework in time enhances the learner’s understanding of the course material, concepts, problem-solving technique and formulas. The learner also can identify strengths and weaknesses hence determine where to put more effort and time. Attending classes and doing homework prepares the student adequately for Math tests. Getting assistance on weak areas in Math also improves the understanding of Math concepts and material. A student may request for assistance during lesson time, approaching the instructor during non-class hours, consulting fellow student and discussing in discussion groups.

Problem-solving process is a fundamental technique that needs to get learned, understood and mastered for improving an individual’s grades. The process commences by first reading the question careful and understanding what is needed for the learner by the problem. The next step is formulating a suitable plan for the problem. The developed plan is then carefully implemented to attain the set objectives. Lastly, in the problem-solving skills is the review of one’s work to identify mistakes and errors or addition of omissions.

Studying Math is also crucial for a learner as it assists them to prepare adequately for a Math test. Studying Math may involve doing homework or just going through the course content. It is most effective when undertaken many days prior to the test period.

The approach in Math test is vital in determining a student’s grade. A student should go to the exam room well prepared for the test. After receiving the question paper, the student should read the instructions, identify problems which they would be comfortable understanding and then plan their time appropriately. All the work done should be shown clearly and possibly in a step by step arrangement. Erasing of wrong work should be avoided, and if necessary, a single line is most appropriate. After completing the paper, the student should review all the work done, to ensure that all instructions got followed and also identify mistakes and errors.

Philosophy Paper 2

Physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should be legal in the United States.

There has been a fierce debate among many stakeholders that include government and non-governmental agencies, religious leaders, healthcare professionals, researchers, activists and scholars on whether physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized or not. Physician-assisted suicide refers to the act where a licensed professional or doctor prescribes lethal drugs to a patient at their voluntary, informed and competent request with the aim of causing death. Voluntary Active Euthanasia refers to the action of a doctor or licensed professional to administer lethal medicine to a patient at their voluntary, informed as well as competent request with the aim of causing death. Various scholars and stakeholders argue that physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized in the United States. In this paper, I will argue that physician-assisted suicide should be illegal in the United States. I will also show that it’s wrong and unlawful for a licensed professional in the health care sector to undertake active voluntary euthanasia.

The proponents of these practices argue that their practices are necessary as they result in a benefit to the patient (Kamm, 1997). They claim that suffering is evil, and these actions eliminate the pain caused by suffering. They maintain that the patients suffering from terminal illnesses have a right to choose not to suffer by taking their lives. They argue that the principle of autonomy in healthcare gets adhered to, as the patient who is not well-trained in ending life procedures voluntarily requests for the services of a trained physician to assist them in ending their lives.

However, this argument fails greatly due to several reasons. First, the principle of autonomy has limitation. The disparity of knowledge as well as clinical judgment compromises the principle of autonomy. All health care professionals have a greater knowledge base that their patients and also have a responsibility to do good to their patients. The suffering caused by diseases such as terminal illness limits a patient’s right to autonomy. Suffering may be a severe and multifaceted challenge, however, is not insurmountable. It is treatable, and the use of certain powerful analgesics and pain management techniques can significantly relieve pain. Hence, these proponents are wrong by suggesting death as the only measure to deal with pain.

The nations that tolerate or legalize assisted suicide or active voluntary euthanasia do so under some set guidelines. For instance, “German where voluntary euthanasia gets prohibited and assisted suicide does not get considered as a violation of the law provided that the patient is tatherrschaftsfahig” (Battin, 2006). That is the patient is capable of exercising control over his or her actions and also acting out of freely responsible choice. In Netherlands, active euthanasia remains prohibited by statutory law and also gets protected by a series of lower and Supreme Court decisions. It broadly gets considered as legal as long as the healthcare professional meets several guidelines. The guidelines are; that the patient’s request be voluntary, that the patient is undergoing intolerable suffering, that the patient gets well informed, that all acceptable alternatives for relieving pain have got attempted and that the physician consults another healthcare professional.

The practice by the Netherlands fails significantly since its availability creates a disincentive for providing good terminal care. The practice also erodes into practicing less-than-voluntary euthanasia on patients whose problems are not irremediable and usually by moderate degrees develop into terminating the lives of individuals who are elderly, handicapped, chronically ill or mentally retarded. In the case of German, Physicians should understand that tehy6 involvement in assisted suicide results into more harm in the practice of medicine. The patients who are dying will have a fear that they are dying due to assisted suicide is allowed. This practice gets seen to distort the healing relationship between doctors and their patients. It is the responsibility of the physician to do what they can ethically so as to alleviate suffering and should in no circumstance involve themselves knowingly in the death of a patient.

As an objection, it may get argued that it is necessary to cause permissible death as a side effect if it leads to relieving pain, as sometimes it is a lesser evil and pain relief is a greater good. This argument allows a healthcare physician to treat pain in whatever manner so as to result in a patient’s greater good.

This objection is wrong since killing a person is not of any good to a patient. There are other alternatives for relieving pain other than death. Furthermore, it does not necessary require a healthcare professional to cause death. Numerous effective methodologies are available especially on the internet that does not necessarily involve a physician.

The paper states in what numerous ways physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia are of more harm than good to a patient. The paper also argues why health care professionals should in not by any means get involved in any practices that aim at causing death as it destroys the patient and doctor relationship as well as is against the principles of medicine. Hence, physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should not get legalized in the United States.