Nature of Theory

Introduction
The word theory is a common term used in different fields and at different occasions to mean almost the same thing. Though different words may be used to help conceptualize what constitutes a theory, the central idea is that a theory is a tool that helps deduce why things are the way they are. I this paper, I will discuss the general definition of a theory, and then the nature and the different basic types of theory, the various views of what constitutes a theory and lastly, what distinguishes a theory from related concepts such as hypothesis, paradigm, model, and concept.

Nature and types of theory
Nature of Theory
As said earlier, theories are tools that aid human understanding about a particular subject matter. As such, a theory, though may not be scientifically verifiable is relied upon to produce logicality about a phenomenon of interest no matter how complex it may be or seem. Here we deduce that a theory abstract rather than perfectly realistic in nature.

A theory is syntactic in nature. That implies that it only becomes meaningful when given a semantic component or when applied to some content. Besides, theories are mainly expressed in some natural language though are mostly constructed in such a way that they can be modified to fit in explaining a variety of phenomena. Theories can also be expressed mathematically or symbolically as long as they follow the principles of logic and rational thought (Stam, 2009).

Apparently, a theory is majorly constructed by a set of sentences consisting of ‘true’ statements though the truth of any one of these statements is always about the whole theory. Therefore, the same statement may be true with respect to one theory, and not true with respect to another. For instance, a literary theory like “He is a good person” can only be proven to be true by first seeking the truth about the ‘He’ character. Two theories are said to have the same explanatory power if they can make same predictions. Such a pair of theories is called indistinguishable or observationally equivalent theories (Zima, 2012).

Types of theory
There are many kinds of theories. However, they all can be classified into two main categories namely scientific and philosophical.

Philosophical Theories
This class consists of theories whose subject and conclusions are not founded on empirical data, but rather on a person’s ideas. That implies that many elementary philosophical theories are just perceptive statements whose truthfulness cannot be scientifically tested. Examples of relevant philosophical theories include the following:

Meta-theory
Meta-theory is a type of philosophical theory whose subject matter is another theory. In other words, meta-theory is a theory about a theory (Stam, 2009).

Political theories
This theory is another type of philosophical theory political theory which tries to explain how the law and government are. Many times, “political theory” points to a general view, or political belief and attitudes about politics (Gelso, 2006).

Scientific Theories
Unlike philosophical theories, scientific theories attempt to explain the why of natural phenomena and processes by the use of well-substantiated evidence. As such, a scientific theory explains an aspect of the natural world using scientific theories such as repeated tests and experimentation. A mathematical theory such as the Newton’s Theory of Gravity is an example of a scientific theory. Among other examples of scientific theories include Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Mendeleev’s theory of the Periodic Table (Zima, 2012).

What constitutes a theory?
According to Gelso, (2006), a theory can be speculative of scientific. As such, it can be used to inform hard facts or general facts about a phenomenon of interest. Corvellec (2013), says that a theory can be mathematical or literary. It can be used to explain how some mathematical formulas came into being or why some people behave the way they do.

How to succeed in Mathematics

In academics, plagiarism gets perceived as a crime that entails theft of another person’s work (often ideas or words in literature) and later presenting them as own. The documentation of another author’s work in your paper or article or book without acknowledging the original author gets viewed as an act of fraud. The copyright laws of the United States protect all forms of expression that have got recorded in some way including literature. This expression by an author, written or a songwriter gets considered as intellectual property that should not get presented elsewhere as own work, copied in any way and lack of or the wrong quotation. Plagiarizing as an offense attracts severe punishment and penalties in a majority of the academic institutions. However, this criminal act of stealing literature can get avoided through a few easy ways. First, scholars and learners should be creative as well as possess the habit of writing own original ideas. Second, an effective way of writing a plagiarism free paper is planning the paper in advance so as to develop adequately many own ideas and correctly add other people’s idea with required citations. Finally, citing correctly and obtaining the correct details of authors assists in avoiding plagiarism.

Another academic challenge experienced by a significant number of learners is succeeding in Mathematics. The learners have multiple troubles in Math that get attributed to poor approach to the subject at different academic levels. Below are Math study skills, guidelines for solving math problems and procedures undertaken in studying Math tests to ensure improved performance in Mathematics. Adhering to the Math Study skills can lead to better grades in Mathematics courses.

Effective Math Study Skills involve class attendance of all Math lessons as well as participating in the lessons. The student gains significantly by attending all Math classes as most professors, and lecturers teach Math examples hence allows the student to master formulas, concepts, and problem-solving techniques. It also offers the learner an opportunity to request for assistance in case they don’t fully understand a concept. Attending classes is also critical as most of the Math test questions get picked from the material that has got covered in classes. The Math classes in colleges and institutions are also significant as the material covered in each class precedes similar material in future classes (Hoyt & McGoldrick, 2012).

The other vital Math skill for a better understanding of concepts and formulas is the self-discipline of completing homework in post-high school institutions. Most of the time, the professors, and lecturers do not check whether the homework has got completed; however, the student should develop a habit of always completing them. It is vital for the student since undertaking assignments act as a self evaluation to identify what a student does not know. It also provides an adequate practice opportunity for the student.

Another vital Math skill is developing a habit of always requesting for assistance every time a student does not understand a concept well. The school setting provides different platforms where a student can get help such as asking the instructor during Math lessons or even at their offices. Another platform is asking fellow students in discussion groups or free time.

The performance in Math gets highly determined by the approach applied in undertaking Math tests. The following simple steps should get followed in Math tests for better grades. First, the student should look over the paper to have a glimpse of the length of the paper, to identify the questions to attempt and also plan their time effectively. The student should then attempt the questions, while carefully reading questions, showing clearly all their work and reviewing their answers.

Philosophy Paper 2

Physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should be legal in the United States.

There has been a fierce debate among many stakeholders that include government and non-governmental agencies, religious leaders, healthcare professionals, researchers, activists and scholars on whether physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized or not. Physician-assisted suicide refers to the act where a licensed professional or doctor prescribes lethal drugs to a patient at their voluntary, informed and competent request with the aim of causing death. Voluntary Active Euthanasia refers to the action of a doctor or licensed professional to administer lethal medicine to a patient at their voluntary, informed as well as competent request with the aim of causing death. Various scholars and stakeholders argue that physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized in the United States. In this paper, I will argue that physician-assisted suicide should be illegal in the United States. I will also show that it’s wrong and unlawful for a licensed professional in the health care sector to undertake active voluntary euthanasia.

The proponents of these practices argue that their practices are necessary as they result in a benefit to the patient (Kamm, 1997). They claim that suffering is evil, and these actions eliminate the pain caused by suffering. They maintain that the patients suffering from terminal illnesses have a right to choose not to suffer by taking their lives. They argue that the principle of autonomy in healthcare gets adhered to, as the patient who is not well-trained in ending life procedures voluntarily requests for the services of a trained physician to assist them in ending their lives.

However, this argument fails greatly due to several reasons. First, the principle of autonomy has limitation. The disparity of knowledge as well as clinical judgment compromises the principle of autonomy. All health care professionals have a greater knowledge base that their patients and also have a responsibility to do good to their patients. The suffering caused by diseases such as terminal illness limits a patient’s right to autonomy. Suffering may be a severe and multifaceted challenge, however, is not insurmountable. It is treatable, and the use of certain powerful analgesics and pain management techniques can significantly relieve pain. Hence, these proponents are wrong by suggesting death as the only measure to deal with pain.

The nations that tolerate or legalize assisted suicide or active voluntary euthanasia do so under some set guidelines. For instance, “German where voluntary euthanasia gets prohibited and assisted suicide does not get considered as a violation of the law provided that the patient is tatherrschaftsfahig” (Battin, 2006). That is the patient is capable of exercising control over his or her actions and also acting out of freely responsible choice. In Netherlands, active euthanasia remains prohibited by statutory law and also gets protected by a series of lower and Supreme Court decisions. It broadly gets considered as legal as long as the healthcare professional meets several guidelines. The guidelines are; that the patient’s request be voluntary, that the patient is undergoing intolerable suffering, that the patient gets well informed, that all acceptable alternatives for relieving pain have got attempted and that the physician consults another healthcare professional.

The practice by the Netherlands fails significantly since its availability creates a disincentive for providing good terminal care. The practice also erodes into practicing less-than-voluntary euthanasia on patients whose problems are not irremediable and usually by moderate degrees develop into terminating the lives of individuals who are elderly, handicapped, chronically ill or mentally retarded. In the case of German, Physicians should understand that tehy6 involvement in assisted suicide results into more harm in the practice of medicine. The patients who are dying will have a fear that they are dying due to assisted suicide is allowed. This practice gets seen to distort the healing relationship between doctors and their patients. It is the responsibility of the physician to do what they can ethically so as to alleviate suffering and should in no circumstance involve themselves knowingly in the death of a patient.

As an objection, it may get argued that it is necessary to cause permissible death as a side effect if it leads to relieving pain, as sometimes it is a lesser evil and pain relief is a greater good. This argument allows a healthcare physician to treat pain in whatever manner so as to result in a patient’s greater good.

This objection is wrong since killing a person is not of any good to a patient. There are other alternatives for relieving pain other than death. Furthermore, it does not necessary require a healthcare professional to cause death. Numerous effective methodologies are available especially on the internet that does not necessarily involve a physician.

The paper states in what numerous ways physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia are of more harm than good to a patient. The paper also argues why health care professionals should in not by any means get involved in any practices that aim at causing death as it destroys the patient and doctor relationship as well as is against the principles of medicine. Hence, physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should not get legalized in the United States.