Plagiarism sites

Plagiarism and how we can apply math skills in Operation Research IME550

Different scholars have defined plagiarism in many different ways. However, all the scholars agree on one factor that plagiarism is a serious academic offence that attracts the highest penalties and punishment. It involves the theft of another person’s ideas or words, lack of acknowledging the source, poor quotation of sources, as well as presenting the work as own to instructors. Every author’s original work that gets expressed in some way gets considered as intellectual property that is under the protection of the copyright laws of the United States. This offence is serious, and all scholars and learners should be keen on avoiding it by all means. Ways of preventing plagiarism include consultations with the professor or lecturer, adequately planning for a paper or book in advance, acknowledging sources and checking individual papers in plagiarism sites.

Mathematics is an important subject in all disciplines and in pursuing all careers; hence vital to have excellent performance in the subject. However, this is not the case as students always perform poorly and get disadvantaged in many ways. There are various Math study skills that when adopted would result in high grades in Mathematics courses including IME550. The list gets provided below together with the correct approach to problem-solving in Mathematics, studying Math and undertaking Math tests.

Math study skills for better grades entail the on absenteeism to Math classes. It gets attributed to several reasons such as the factor that the instructors cover large Math sections in one class and do Math examples during lessons. Hence, missing a single class would result in losing significantly. The instructors also formulate the end of academic year Math tests using the material covered in class, thus attending every day gives a student an added advantage. Attending all classes together with completing homework in time enhances the learner’s understanding of the course material, concepts, problem-solving technique and formulas. The learner also can identify strengths and weaknesses hence determine where to put more effort and time. Attending classes and doing homework prepares the student adequately for Math tests. Getting assistance on weak areas in Math also improves the understanding of Math concepts and material. A student may request for assistance during lesson time, approaching the instructor during non-class hours, consulting fellow student and discussing in discussion groups.

Problem-solving process is a fundamental technique that needs to get learned, understood and mastered for improving an individual’s grades. The process commences by first reading the question careful and understanding what is needed for the learner by the problem. The next step is formulating a suitable plan for the problem. The developed plan is then carefully implemented to attain the set objectives. Lastly, in the problem-solving skills is the review of one’s work to identify mistakes and errors or addition of omissions.

Studying Math is also crucial for a learner as it assists them to prepare adequately for a Math test. Studying Math may involve doing homework or just going through the course content. It is most effective when undertaken many days prior to the test period.

The approach in Math test is vital in determining a student’s grade. A student should go to the exam room well prepared for the test. After receiving the question paper, the student should read the instructions, identify problems which they would be comfortable understanding and then plan their time appropriately. All the work done should be shown clearly and possibly in a step by step arrangement. Erasing of wrong work should be avoided, and if necessary, a single line is most appropriate. After completing the paper, the student should review all the work done, to ensure that all instructions got followed and also identify mistakes and errors.

How to succeed in Mathematics

In academics, plagiarism gets perceived as a crime that entails theft of another person’s work (often ideas or words in literature) and later presenting them as own. The documentation of another author’s work in your paper or article or book without acknowledging the original author gets viewed as an act of fraud. The copyright laws of the United States protect all forms of expression that have got recorded in some way including literature. This expression by an author, written or a songwriter gets considered as intellectual property that should not get presented elsewhere as own work, copied in any way and lack of or the wrong quotation. Plagiarizing as an offense attracts severe punishment and penalties in a majority of the academic institutions. However, this criminal act of stealing literature can get avoided through a few easy ways. First, scholars and learners should be creative as well as possess the habit of writing own original ideas. Second, an effective way of writing a plagiarism free paper is planning the paper in advance so as to develop adequately many own ideas and correctly add other people’s idea with required citations. Finally, citing correctly and obtaining the correct details of authors assists in avoiding plagiarism.

Another academic challenge experienced by a significant number of learners is succeeding in Mathematics. The learners have multiple troubles in Math that get attributed to poor approach to the subject at different academic levels. Below are Math study skills, guidelines for solving math problems and procedures undertaken in studying Math tests to ensure improved performance in Mathematics. Adhering to the Math Study skills can lead to better grades in Mathematics courses.

Effective Math Study Skills involve class attendance of all Math lessons as well as participating in the lessons. The student gains significantly by attending all Math classes as most professors, and lecturers teach Math examples hence allows the student to master formulas, concepts, and problem-solving techniques. It also offers the learner an opportunity to request for assistance in case they don’t fully understand a concept. Attending classes is also critical as most of the Math test questions get picked from the material that has got covered in classes. The Math classes in colleges and institutions are also significant as the material covered in each class precedes similar material in future classes (Hoyt & McGoldrick, 2012).

The other vital Math skill for a better understanding of concepts and formulas is the self-discipline of completing homework in post-high school institutions. Most of the time, the professors, and lecturers do not check whether the homework has got completed; however, the student should develop a habit of always completing them. It is vital for the student since undertaking assignments act as a self evaluation to identify what a student does not know. It also provides an adequate practice opportunity for the student.

Another vital Math skill is developing a habit of always requesting for assistance every time a student does not understand a concept well. The school setting provides different platforms where a student can get help such as asking the instructor during Math lessons or even at their offices. Another platform is asking fellow students in discussion groups or free time.

The performance in Math gets highly determined by the approach applied in undertaking Math tests. The following simple steps should get followed in Math tests for better grades. First, the student should look over the paper to have a glimpse of the length of the paper, to identify the questions to attempt and also plan their time effectively. The student should then attempt the questions, while carefully reading questions, showing clearly all their work and reviewing their answers.

Nature of Theory

Introduction
The word theory is a common term used in different fields and at different occasions to mean almost the same thing. Though different words may be used to help conceptualize what constitutes a theory, the central idea is that a theory is a tool that helps deduce why things are the way they are. I this paper, I will discuss the general definition of a theory, and then the nature and the different basic types of theory, the various views of what constitutes a theory and lastly, what distinguishes a theory from related concepts such as hypothesis, paradigm, model, and concept.

Nature and types of theory
Nature of Theory
As said earlier, theories are tools that aid human understanding about a particular subject matter. As such, a theory, though may not be scientifically verifiable is relied upon to produce logicality about a phenomenon of interest no matter how complex it may be or seem. Here we deduce that a theory abstract rather than perfectly realistic in nature.

A theory is syntactic in nature. That implies that it only becomes meaningful when given a semantic component or when applied to some content. Besides, theories are mainly expressed in some natural language though are mostly constructed in such a way that they can be modified to fit in explaining a variety of phenomena. Theories can also be expressed mathematically or symbolically as long as they follow the principles of logic and rational thought (Stam, 2009).

Apparently, a theory is majorly constructed by a set of sentences consisting of ‘true’ statements though the truth of any one of these statements is always about the whole theory. Therefore, the same statement may be true with respect to one theory, and not true with respect to another. For instance, a literary theory like “He is a good person” can only be proven to be true by first seeking the truth about the ‘He’ character. Two theories are said to have the same explanatory power if they can make same predictions. Such a pair of theories is called indistinguishable or observationally equivalent theories (Zima, 2012).

Types of theory
There are many kinds of theories. However, they all can be classified into two main categories namely scientific and philosophical.

Philosophical Theories
This class consists of theories whose subject and conclusions are not founded on empirical data, but rather on a person’s ideas. That implies that many elementary philosophical theories are just perceptive statements whose truthfulness cannot be scientifically tested. Examples of relevant philosophical theories include the following:

Meta-theory
Meta-theory is a type of philosophical theory whose subject matter is another theory. In other words, meta-theory is a theory about a theory (Stam, 2009).

Political theories
This theory is another type of philosophical theory political theory which tries to explain how the law and government are. Many times, “political theory” points to a general view, or political belief and attitudes about politics (Gelso, 2006).

Scientific Theories
Unlike philosophical theories, scientific theories attempt to explain the why of natural phenomena and processes by the use of well-substantiated evidence. As such, a scientific theory explains an aspect of the natural world using scientific theories such as repeated tests and experimentation. A mathematical theory such as the Newton’s Theory of Gravity is an example of a scientific theory. Among other examples of scientific theories include Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Mendeleev’s theory of the Periodic Table (Zima, 2012).

What constitutes a theory?
According to Gelso, (2006), a theory can be speculative of scientific. As such, it can be used to inform hard facts or general facts about a phenomenon of interest. Corvellec (2013), says that a theory can be mathematical or literary. It can be used to explain how some mathematical formulas came into being or why some people behave the way they do.