Chapter 11 and Chapter 12

Chapter 11 Questions
Define a stockholder and stakeholder. What is the difference between the two?

A stockholder is an individual with the claim over owning part of the company in such a way that he/she has ownership of the stock and has an influence on the finance of the corporation. A stockholder can at the time be referred to as the shareholder. A stakeholder, on the other hand, is an individual with the interests of the organization or corporation. And for this case, the stakeholders has some other interests other than the stock appreciation of the Corporation (Lindsay, 2016).

A stockholder is an individually that will take part in the electing the directors of the company and another small number of additional issues that he/she can handle. At the same time, a stockholder is entitled to dividends. A stockholder can be part of the stakeholders group, but a stakeholder is not regarded as stockholders. The positions outlined that stockholding is within stakeholding.

A stakeholder is any individually that represents a wide group of the persons with the interest in the operations (success or failure) of the company. The group has a big impact on the general operations of the company as it is wide and it includes the stockholders (shareholders), the creditors, customers, the local community, employees and the government. A stakeholder takes greatly part in the management of the corporations as their influence brings about the loss or the decline in the organization performance. They have a high impact on the decisions undertaken within the business.

What process does a company go through to respond to stakeholder concerns? What are the steps of this process?

In the operations and general management of an organization, the stakeholders play a crucial role as they take part in the decision-making process. To get the stakeholders concerns responded to by the managers, different methods can be applied. However, based on the role they play engagement is the most reliable principle to go about the task. Once they are engaged, the creation and the maintenance of the business value are upheld. The stakeholders’ engagements strategy is defined by the social business relationship (BSR) background. The strategy can be implemented through five distinctive steps of engagement strategy (set), stakeholder mapping (Define), Preparation (Focus), Engagement (Conduct), and Action Plan (Identify).

The engagement strategy comes before understanding that engaging stakeholders mean taking and treating the issues and opinions of the stakeholders as the outside concerns.

Stakeholders mapping stage defines the collaborative undertaking of research and conducting a discussion to have the identification of the key list of the company stakeholders. The mapping is done through the steps of identifying, analyzing, mapping and prioritizing. The success of the stakeholders’ identification will depend on the knowledge of the participants in the research and discussion.

The preparation stage once more defines the examination of the identified organization stakeholders to have a good understanding of their concerns, positions, and interests. The follow-up step of identifying is the determination of the best method of incorporating the concerns within eh company with the best understanding of the risks associated with the engagement. This defines the action plan which upholds to the system of the participant (managers) that goes by the engagement, communicating and informing. Engaging defines the stakeholders, communication, on the other hand, defines the stakeholders with the highest level of willingness to engage and inform defines the seeking of the information than conversations (Morris & Baddache, 2012).

What is the agency problem? What are the governance mechanisms that can be put in place to defend from this problem?

An agency problem can be defined as the conflict of interest that may exist between the management of the organization and the stockholders of the company. In this case, the managers within the management bracket define the agents who have the official task of making sound decisions that will get to maximize the profits (dividends) to the stockholders.

The corporate governance comes in to provide the balance through the sharing of powers amongst the directors, management and the stockholders with the aim to maximize the shareholder value and protect the stakeholder’s interest. The way to go about the agency problem is to ensure that the company complies with local, state and federal statutes. Establish some standards that should comply. Thirdly, implement best practices as suggested by the professional organizations.

Describe internal controls and strategies that can be implemented to ensure ethical behavior within a company.

The development of an ethics program within the organization will get the ethical behavior implemented. The program should get done through the establishing, communicating and the monitoring of the ethical values. The values are expected to characterize the company history, culture, and the operating system. The program should accommodate the codes of conduct to the employees.

Develop ethical standards and take the employees through the training about the standards. Also, ensure that the employees comply with the ethics, and this can be measured through the comparison of the ethical employee performance.

Chapter 12 Questions
How can organizational design contribute to competitive advantage?
There are so many ways in which an organization can be structured based on the objectives of the organization. An organization is usually referred to as a group of entities which operate to achieve the same common goal or goals. The structure of any organization influences the performance of the organization. Organizational structures offer the capability to specify responsibilities for assorted functions and processes to entities including workgroup, individuals, branch, and department. People who operate as individuals are often hired for specified time periods in organizational structures to carry out contracts of work, orders for work, permanent contract employment or even under program orders. Constantly increasing competitive pressure correlates with changing organizational structures and the involved processes to improve the competitive advantage of the organizations. The existence of skills and resources that are better outside the organization increased application of the use of alliances, down scoping or outsourcing by firms tend to cause the firms to draw in the narrow scope of activities.

Describe how a strong organizational culture leads to transparency, ethics, and to competitive advantage within a company.

Effective organizational structures make better the relations of work among the several entities that exist within the organizations. This will improve the efficiency of carrying out activities within the organizational units and hence enables an organization to develop an order and control, which is important for the monitoring of various processes that exist in the firm. The organization, therefore, supports command for carrying on with a variety of orders and changes in the conditions for performance of work. The organization incorporates the use of skills from individuals to introduce ease of change and application of creativities. With the expansion of business, the chain of command becomes longer and hence expands the span of control. With age, the flexibility of the organization will reduce with the creativity fatiguing. This makes it necessary for the organizational structures to be often changed to accommodate recovery.

How does the implementation of functional structures lead to more organizational control and more effective strategic planning?

Organizational culture influences the way in which specialists in the organization think and carry out their responsibilities. It is influenced positively by important reconfiguration of the part played by human resources in the development of the organization. As a result of organizational culture, there is improved performance within organizations and increased flexibility in the demand of the market. A strong corporate culture is known as an imperative driver of innovation to forces from the outside.

The culture of a company is derived from the values, structures, assumptions which are essential for the survival of an organization in a given industry. Organizational culture is transparent to workers in the firm, investors, and customers. It sets the picture of the organization at present and in the future. The organizational culture creates a strong relationship with the group that is difficult to break. The culture can either be the strongest asset or the biggest liability to the organization. Its impact is more than talents present in an organization and apparently possesses significant influence on the goals of the organization.

Organizational culture assists in the development of ethics that are expected in an organization. This is because it outlines what each and every individual in the organization is expected. If well incorporated into the culture of the organization, the ethics are easily followed by the stakeholders in the firm as well as its employees and management. It also encourages transparency since all the individuals surrounding the organization can observe what the organization stands. This increases trust by customers and even investors since the organization becomes very easy to understand regarding operations and policies.

Organizational structure outlines how activities in an organization are directed to the achievement of the organizational goals through the allocation of tasks, supervision, and coordination. The organizational structure, therefore, serves as a way through which people see their organization and the environment of the organization. It influences the activities of the organization in ways such as the provision of the foundation on which the accepted standards of operation and procedure routines. This makes it a very important tool in the strategic planning. It also determines which members of the organization are given the role of making decisions which determine the extent to which their opinions affects the line of action to be taken by the organization.

What Are the Benefits of Enrolling Your Child in Spring Break Camp Chilliwack?

Introduction
Spring break ! It’s a time for kids to unwind, recharge, and create memories that will last a lifetime. But for parents, it can also mean scrambling to find childcare and activities to keep those little minds and bodies occupied. Fear not, Chilliwack parents! Fraser River CEC’s Spring Break Camp in Chilliwack is here to offer your child an unforgettable week of fun, learning, and adventure. We’re more than just daycare – we provide a safe, stimulating environment where your child can thrive during their break from school.

But why choose Spring Break Camp Chilliwack? Here are just a few reasons why it should be at the top of your list:
A World of Engaging Activities:
Keeping kids entertained is no small feat, but we’ve got it covered! Our camp boasts a wide variety of activities designed to cater to all interests. From arts and crafts enthusiasts to budding scientists and sports fanatics, there’s something for every child to enjoy.

Arts and Crafts Extravaganza: Let their creativity run wild! Our camp counsellors will guide them through exciting projects that spark their imagination and allow them to express themselves artistically.
Sports and Games Galore: Need to burn off some energy? Our counselors will lead them in fun and engaging games and sports activities, promoting teamwork, sportsmanship, and a healthy dose of exercise.
Nature Detectives: Spring is a beautiful time to explore the wonders of the outdoors! We’ll take themed nature walks, have educational discussions about local flora and fauna, and ignite a love for our planet.
Themed Days: Get ready for an exciting twist! Each day could have a unique theme, like Mad Scientist Monday, Wacky Wednesday, or Thirsty Thursday for Water Games. These themes add a layer of surprise and keep the fun fresh throughout the week.
Learning Through Play:
At Spring Break Camp Chilliwack, we believe that learning shouldn’t stop just because school’s out. We seamlessly integrate educational elements into our activities, ensuring your child continues to develop new skills and knowledge.

Spark Curiosity: Our science experiments and nature walks will pique their curiosity about the world around them, fostering a love for lifelong learning.
Develop New Skills: Whether it’s mastering a new art technique, learning a new sport, or working collaboratively with peers, our camp provides opportunities for them to refine existing skills and acquire new ones.
Brain Boosters: We’ll incorporate age-appropriate educational games and activities that challenge them mentally and keep those brain cells firing!
Safe and Secure Environment:
We understand that your child’s safety and well-being are your top priority, and they are ours too. Spring Vacation Camp Chilliwack provides a secure and nurturing environment where your child can feel comfortable and at ease.

Experienced Staff: Our team is comprised of dedicated professionals who are passionate about working with children. They undergo thorough background checks and receive training in first aid and emergency procedures.
High Safety Standards: We maintain pristine facilities with state-of-the-art safety measures. Our counselors maintain a close eye on all campers throughout the day, ensuring everyone has a safe and enjoyable experience.
Building Social Connections:
Spring break isn’t just about fun and games; it’s also a valuable opportunity for your child to develop their social skills. At camp, they’ll interact with peers, make new friends, and learn how to work together in a positive and inclusive environment.

Teamwork Makes the Dream Work: Through group activities and games, they’ll learn the importance of communication, collaboration, and problem-solving.
Friendship Fun: Camp provides a space for them to connect with like-minded children, build friendships, and develop a sense of belonging.
Boosting Confidence: Positive interactions with peers and counselors can give your child a confidence boost, allowing them to shine and feel comfortable expressing themselves.
Peace of Mind for Parents:
Spring break can be a hectic time for parents. But with Spring Break Camp Chilliwack, you can relax knowing your child is in safe hands, having a blast, and making unforgettable memories.

Flexible Options: We offer a variety of options to suit your needs, including full-week or daily enrollment.
Open Communication: Our counselors will keep you updated on your child’s day-to-day activities and ensure you feel comfortable and informed.
Affordable Fun: We offer competitive rates and strive to make our camp accessible to all families in the Chilliwack community.
Spring Break Camp Chilliwack: More Than Just Camp
Spring Break Camp Chilliwack is more than just a childcare solution; it’s an investment in your child’

Philosophy Paper 2

Physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should be legal in the United States.

There has been a fierce debate among many stakeholders that include government and non-governmental agencies, religious leaders, healthcare professionals, researchers, activists and scholars on whether physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized or not. Physician-assisted suicide refers to the act where a licensed professional or doctor prescribes lethal drugs to a patient at their voluntary, informed and competent request with the aim of causing death. Voluntary Active Euthanasia refers to the action of a doctor or licensed professional to administer lethal medicine to a patient at their voluntary, informed as well as competent request with the aim of causing death. Various scholars and stakeholders argue that physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should get legalized in the United States. In this paper, I will argue that physician-assisted suicide should be illegal in the United States. I will also show that it’s wrong and unlawful for a licensed professional in the health care sector to undertake active voluntary euthanasia.

The proponents of these practices argue that their practices are necessary as they result in a benefit to the patient (Kamm, 1997). They claim that suffering is evil, and these actions eliminate the pain caused by suffering. They maintain that the patients suffering from terminal illnesses have a right to choose not to suffer by taking their lives. They argue that the principle of autonomy in healthcare gets adhered to, as the patient who is not well-trained in ending life procedures voluntarily requests for the services of a trained physician to assist them in ending their lives.

However, this argument fails greatly due to several reasons. First, the principle of autonomy has limitation. The disparity of knowledge as well as clinical judgment compromises the principle of autonomy. All health care professionals have a greater knowledge base that their patients and also have a responsibility to do good to their patients. The suffering caused by diseases such as terminal illness limits a patient’s right to autonomy. Suffering may be a severe and multifaceted challenge, however, is not insurmountable. It is treatable, and the use of certain powerful analgesics and pain management techniques can significantly relieve pain. Hence, these proponents are wrong by suggesting death as the only measure to deal with pain.

The nations that tolerate or legalize assisted suicide or active voluntary euthanasia do so under some set guidelines. For instance, “German where voluntary euthanasia gets prohibited and assisted suicide does not get considered as a violation of the law provided that the patient is tatherrschaftsfahig” (Battin, 2006). That is the patient is capable of exercising control over his or her actions and also acting out of freely responsible choice. In Netherlands, active euthanasia remains prohibited by statutory law and also gets protected by a series of lower and Supreme Court decisions. It broadly gets considered as legal as long as the healthcare professional meets several guidelines. The guidelines are; that the patient’s request be voluntary, that the patient is undergoing intolerable suffering, that the patient gets well informed, that all acceptable alternatives for relieving pain have got attempted and that the physician consults another healthcare professional.

The practice by the Netherlands fails significantly since its availability creates a disincentive for providing good terminal care. The practice also erodes into practicing less-than-voluntary euthanasia on patients whose problems are not irremediable and usually by moderate degrees develop into terminating the lives of individuals who are elderly, handicapped, chronically ill or mentally retarded. In the case of German, Physicians should understand that tehy6 involvement in assisted suicide results into more harm in the practice of medicine. The patients who are dying will have a fear that they are dying due to assisted suicide is allowed. This practice gets seen to distort the healing relationship between doctors and their patients. It is the responsibility of the physician to do what they can ethically so as to alleviate suffering and should in no circumstance involve themselves knowingly in the death of a patient.

As an objection, it may get argued that it is necessary to cause permissible death as a side effect if it leads to relieving pain, as sometimes it is a lesser evil and pain relief is a greater good. This argument allows a healthcare physician to treat pain in whatever manner so as to result in a patient’s greater good.

This objection is wrong since killing a person is not of any good to a patient. There are other alternatives for relieving pain other than death. Furthermore, it does not necessary require a healthcare professional to cause death. Numerous effective methodologies are available especially on the internet that does not necessarily involve a physician.

The paper states in what numerous ways physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia are of more harm than good to a patient. The paper also argues why health care professionals should in not by any means get involved in any practices that aim at causing death as it destroys the patient and doctor relationship as well as is against the principles of medicine. Hence, physician-assisted suicide and active voluntary euthanasia should not get legalized in the United States.