Diversity in the Workplace

Difference between Diversity and Multiculturalism
When it comes to multiculturalism and diversity, there is always that tendency by most people to use the terms interchangeably, when in fact there are major differences between the two. The difference between people is as diversity, and the differences range from gender, race, sexual orientation, background, socioeconomic status and much more. The human resource management perspective on diversity goes ahead to look at policies set so as to meet compliance standards where we see commissions such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) verse complaints in the area. On the other hand, multiculturalism is much deeper than diversity as it focuses on inclusiveness, understanding as well as respect and further looks at unequal power in society. In the workplace most human resource managers see multiculturalism as not being well defined, places emphasis on gender and ethnicity as well as focusing too much on compliance (Carr-Ruffino, 2008).

Diversity is about otherness between individuals and the purpose of diversity being ensuring that people are treated the same through policies. As much as making everyone get the same treatment it is the right thing to do multiculturalism comes in and looks at a system of advantages as per race, gender as well as sexual; orientation called power and privilege. It through this system that advantages of diversity get identified where a person’s race, a person’s gender as well as individual’s sexual orientation is used in setting societal rules as well as norms. Power and privilege are not something that is easily recognized and as such it is mostly regarded as invisible privilege (Fine, 2012). Some of the privileges include

Privileges that are gender based- This is privilege indicates the advantage that one gender has over the other for instance when there is that assumption that once a female gets married, she will automatically change her last name and take up her husband last name (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are race oriented- When one race is treated as better than another or regarded greater as this may make the race seen as less get infuriating (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are social class oriented- This are privileges that only those in a certain social class get for instance the upper class may have advantages in club membership than those in the lower social class (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are sexually oriented- This privilege is seen mostly when a person of a certain social orientation easily does something that another person of a different social orientation cannot do. For instance, it is easier for heterosexual couples to display affection publicly yet a gay, lesbian and transgendered people couple May not being in a position to do the same without racing eyebrows (Fine, 2012).
The above privileges are indeed invisible as most people focus on what they can see only, and they focus on for instance the color of the skin to determine whether they treat people the same or not. The invisible privileges are often ignored or go unnoticed as most people do not recognize the privileges they receive due to the certain race, a certain gender or even sexual orientation (Fine, 2012).

It is though no recognition of the difference in the society as well as the difference between people that there is the failure to see that people have different needs, assets as well as perspectives. Further power and privilege enable people to know that as much as there has an advantage in one area there is always that other area that their difference may not get appreciated by the same society that accepts the other privileges that they have. For instance, a Caucasian female in America may have race privileges but not gender privileges. Power and privilege importance are as it enables individuals to understand their stereotype as well as systems of advantage thus allowing them to get inclusive with coworkers, employees, and managers (Fine, 2012).

In Human Resource Management it is crucial to combine the understanding of certain systems that enable as well as allow for power and privilege as it is such a system that will allow the understanding and thus eliminate or try to minimize the issues that emerge from our difference in the society (Fine, 2012).

Advantages of diversity in the workplace
One of the best things that an organization can get is a workforce that is diverse where individual have the difference in perspective as this may mean that t6hwe organization profitability levels may go up, and it may also lead to better service offer to its customers. However rather than looking at diversity as a way of attaining numerical goals or just complying with the law, it is best to combine the concept to create a workplace that is much better for everyone in the organization. The following are some of the advantages of diversity in the workplace

Allows better service to customers- It is through diversity that an organization can offer better services to its customers as it will give a broader range of services, such as variety in languages as well as the understanding of the difference in culture (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000)
Allows for better communication- Diversity allows better communication between individuals in the organization allowing saves in time as well as money (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Allow compliance with the law- It is commonly a legal requirement for most governments in the world to treat everyone the same regardless of their race, gender or sexual orientation (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Allow for better ideas and solutions- It from the perspective of diversity that an organization can create ideas and solutions that are better for the benefit of the organization (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
The following are some of the disadvantages of diversity in the workplace

Contributes to discomfort among employees- Many employees feel that some changes are not necessary and may prefer maintaining a status quo and thus resist diversity as it brings them discomfort (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Integration Issues- As much as social integration influence in an organization in a minimal way it still has a negative impact. It is through diversity that formation of cliques, as well as exclusive social groups, takes place, and the problems come in when the organization can no longer control the groups. These uncontrolled cliques further contribute to informal division in the staff thus creating situations where culturally diverse employees avoid exposure to each other during break times as well after work. As much as the scenario seems harmless there is a high chance that it hinders the effectiveness of knowledge sharing, experience, and skills, thus preventing growth and brings ineffectiveness in teams (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Freedom of speech impairment- In the workplace diversity existence creates a barrier in the speech where workers that previously could tell jokes happily are forced to quell their exercise of the First Amendment Rights that they hold riotously all in the name of diversity (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Relationships in the Workplace- Employees tend to feel less important when an organization main focus becomes diversity creation especially if the employees do not represent a typical diverse population that focus on race, sex, age as well as disability. The feeling of undervaluation and unappreciated that is purely by no representation of certain diversity may hinder employee’s productivity (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Strategic HRM in the Workplace
Recruitment and Selection
Sometimes organizations do not intend to portray exclusiveness or even discriminate, but it is their practices that are illegal and discriminatory. For instance organizations such as Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regards the publication of a job that description and shows the preference for a company of a person they wish to select and place in the organization as illegal. An organization can get an opportunity to get the person they want and still adhere to the law using methods such as four-fifths rule or 80% rule that are a qualitative method of evaluating discrimination in the practice of selection.

The rule states indicates that a rate of selection that has the race, sex or even ethnic group basis is less than four-fifths of the rate for them group with the highest rate could mean a diverse impact on the selection. Where adverse impact refers to a practice of employment that appears neutral but carries with its discriminatory effect on a group whose protection is hindered, for instance, the females, gays (Stone et al, 2007)

Testing
It is crucial for employees to get tested for the job, for instance an organization may undertake a personality test to hire, and this ensures that discrimination avoidance takes place, and the population is non-exclusion. Further, it is necessary to include a reasonable accommodation such as interpreter as long as it does not strain the organization financially it is needs granting.

It is also very crucial to determine the type of test offering and how it might leave out a certain group of people such as the non-English speakers (Stone et al, 2007).

Promotion and pay
In a multicultural and diverse situation, it is crucial for an organization to develop policies that are related to pay as well as promotions as such policies are key to fairness. Over the years, there has been a wide publication that women make 77 percent of what men earn for a similar position in an organization and the reasons for such difference in pay are

Some hours worked- There is a belief that women due to the family responsibility such as child-care as well as expectation housework work fewer hours than men (Stone et al, 2007).
Choice of occupation- Women tend to choose careers that pay much less as they are more concerned about balancing family and career (Stone et al, 2007).
Stereotypes- The concept of male bias is another possible contributor to the large difference in pay between men and women where most men are perceived more competent in certain types of jobs than women.
Maternity and family leave- In the workplace the women leaving the workplace for a period short or long affect the perception of promotion (Stone et al, 2007).
Salary and Negotiation- Previous research indicates that men are more likely to negotiate salary than women and a possible reason for the difference in pay between them (Stone et al, 2007).
Managers need awareness of the difference between the pay of men and women when hiring and promoting. At times, it requires a set of the payment schedule for all employees regardless of their gender and promoted employees. Further an organization can introduce mentor-mentee relationships where informal mentorship programs can take effect in the organization (Stone et al, 2007).

Affirmative Action
Affirmative action is government initiated, regulated as well as legislated and is distinctly different from multiculturalism and diversity as diversity is voluntary although government agencies may pressure organizations in certain circumstances to diversify their workforce. Affirmative action is driven legally, focused on the problems at hand, integrated and very proactive. It means using individual group’s identity as a standard for selection decisions (Stone et al, 2007).

Diversity training, as well as diversity programs, are crucial need not get basis from historical workplace where there were inequalities between men and women as well as with majority of the minority programs. Such focus mostly leads to a condescending atmosphere. However, it is crucial for affirmative action and diversity to take separate ways regardless of diversity having some antecedents in affirmative action (Stone et al, 2007).

Training
It is crucial for an organization to help employees buy-in and entails enabling staff as well as managers understand d the value of a diverse workforce and the management of diversity. Such training aims at bullying reduction, harassment cases and the increase in inclusion in activities for people with language, culture as well as disability needs. The training offered includes induction, but is also ongoing and very organic, adapting over time as new employees with different diversity join the organization (Stone et al, 2007).

Retention
It is crucial for the organization to realize that employees exiting a company have nothing to lose, and it is easy for them to give openly information regarding the organization’s activities. It was thus crucial to ensure diversity policies introduced in the organization create minimum resistance and thus ensure the reduction in the level of turnover.

Chapter 11 and Chapter 12

Chapter 11 Questions
Define a stockholder and stakeholder. What is the difference between the two?

A stockholder is an individual with the claim over owning part of the company in such a way that he/she has ownership of the stock and has an influence on the finance of the corporation. A stockholder can at the time be referred to as the shareholder. A stakeholder, on the other hand, is an individual with the interests of the organization or corporation. And for this case, the stakeholders has some other interests other than the stock appreciation of the Corporation (Lindsay, 2016).

A stockholder is an individually that will take part in the electing the directors of the company and another small number of additional issues that he/she can handle. At the same time, a stockholder is entitled to dividends. A stockholder can be part of the stakeholders group, but a stakeholder is not regarded as stockholders. The positions outlined that stockholding is within stakeholding.

A stakeholder is any individually that represents a wide group of the persons with the interest in the operations (success or failure) of the company. The group has a big impact on the general operations of the company as it is wide and it includes the stockholders (shareholders), the creditors, customers, the local community, employees and the government. A stakeholder takes greatly part in the management of the corporations as their influence brings about the loss or the decline in the organization performance. They have a high impact on the decisions undertaken within the business.

What process does a company go through to respond to stakeholder concerns? What are the steps of this process?

In the operations and general management of an organization, the stakeholders play a crucial role as they take part in the decision-making process. To get the stakeholders concerns responded to by the managers, different methods can be applied. However, based on the role they play engagement is the most reliable principle to go about the task. Once they are engaged, the creation and the maintenance of the business value are upheld. The stakeholders’ engagements strategy is defined by the social business relationship (BSR) background. The strategy can be implemented through five distinctive steps of engagement strategy (set), stakeholder mapping (Define), Preparation (Focus), Engagement (Conduct), and Action Plan (Identify).

The engagement strategy comes before understanding that engaging stakeholders mean taking and treating the issues and opinions of the stakeholders as the outside concerns.

Stakeholders mapping stage defines the collaborative undertaking of research and conducting a discussion to have the identification of the key list of the company stakeholders. The mapping is done through the steps of identifying, analyzing, mapping and prioritizing. The success of the stakeholders’ identification will depend on the knowledge of the participants in the research and discussion.

The preparation stage once more defines the examination of the identified organization stakeholders to have a good understanding of their concerns, positions, and interests. The follow-up step of identifying is the determination of the best method of incorporating the concerns within eh company with the best understanding of the risks associated with the engagement. This defines the action plan which upholds to the system of the participant (managers) that goes by the engagement, communicating and informing. Engaging defines the stakeholders, communication, on the other hand, defines the stakeholders with the highest level of willingness to engage and inform defines the seeking of the information than conversations (Morris & Baddache, 2012).

What is the agency problem? What are the governance mechanisms that can be put in place to defend from this problem?

An agency problem can be defined as the conflict of interest that may exist between the management of the organization and the stockholders of the company. In this case, the managers within the management bracket define the agents who have the official task of making sound decisions that will get to maximize the profits (dividends) to the stockholders.

The corporate governance comes in to provide the balance through the sharing of powers amongst the directors, management and the stockholders with the aim to maximize the shareholder value and protect the stakeholder’s interest. The way to go about the agency problem is to ensure that the company complies with local, state and federal statutes. Establish some standards that should comply. Thirdly, implement best practices as suggested by the professional organizations.

Describe internal controls and strategies that can be implemented to ensure ethical behavior within a company.

The development of an ethics program within the organization will get the ethical behavior implemented. The program should get done through the establishing, communicating and the monitoring of the ethical values. The values are expected to characterize the company history, culture, and the operating system. The program should accommodate the codes of conduct to the employees.

Develop ethical standards and take the employees through the training about the standards. Also, ensure that the employees comply with the ethics, and this can be measured through the comparison of the ethical employee performance.

Chapter 12 Questions
How can organizational design contribute to competitive advantage?
There are so many ways in which an organization can be structured based on the objectives of the organization. An organization is usually referred to as a group of entities which operate to achieve the same common goal or goals. The structure of any organization influences the performance of the organization. Organizational structures offer the capability to specify responsibilities for assorted functions and processes to entities including workgroup, individuals, branch, and department. People who operate as individuals are often hired for specified time periods in organizational structures to carry out contracts of work, orders for work, permanent contract employment or even under program orders. Constantly increasing competitive pressure correlates with changing organizational structures and the involved processes to improve the competitive advantage of the organizations. The existence of skills and resources that are better outside the organization increased application of the use of alliances, down scoping or outsourcing by firms tend to cause the firms to draw in the narrow scope of activities.

Describe how a strong organizational culture leads to transparency, ethics, and to competitive advantage within a company.

Effective organizational structures make better the relations of work among the several entities that exist within the organizations. This will improve the efficiency of carrying out activities within the organizational units and hence enables an organization to develop an order and control, which is important for the monitoring of various processes that exist in the firm. The organization, therefore, supports command for carrying on with a variety of orders and changes in the conditions for performance of work. The organization incorporates the use of skills from individuals to introduce ease of change and application of creativities. With the expansion of business, the chain of command becomes longer and hence expands the span of control. With age, the flexibility of the organization will reduce with the creativity fatiguing. This makes it necessary for the organizational structures to be often changed to accommodate recovery.

How does the implementation of functional structures lead to more organizational control and more effective strategic planning?

Organizational culture influences the way in which specialists in the organization think and carry out their responsibilities. It is influenced positively by important reconfiguration of the part played by human resources in the development of the organization. As a result of organizational culture, there is improved performance within organizations and increased flexibility in the demand of the market. A strong corporate culture is known as an imperative driver of innovation to forces from the outside.

The culture of a company is derived from the values, structures, assumptions which are essential for the survival of an organization in a given industry. Organizational culture is transparent to workers in the firm, investors, and customers. It sets the picture of the organization at present and in the future. The organizational culture creates a strong relationship with the group that is difficult to break. The culture can either be the strongest asset or the biggest liability to the organization. Its impact is more than talents present in an organization and apparently possesses significant influence on the goals of the organization.

Organizational culture assists in the development of ethics that are expected in an organization. This is because it outlines what each and every individual in the organization is expected. If well incorporated into the culture of the organization, the ethics are easily followed by the stakeholders in the firm as well as its employees and management. It also encourages transparency since all the individuals surrounding the organization can observe what the organization stands. This increases trust by customers and even investors since the organization becomes very easy to understand regarding operations and policies.

Organizational structure outlines how activities in an organization are directed to the achievement of the organizational goals through the allocation of tasks, supervision, and coordination. The organizational structure, therefore, serves as a way through which people see their organization and the environment of the organization. It influences the activities of the organization in ways such as the provision of the foundation on which the accepted standards of operation and procedure routines. This makes it a very important tool in the strategic planning. It also determines which members of the organization are given the role of making decisions which determine the extent to which their opinions affects the line of action to be taken by the organization.

Plagiarism sites

Plagiarism and how we can apply math skills in Operation Research IME550

Different scholars have defined plagiarism in many different ways. However, all the scholars agree on one factor that plagiarism is a serious academic offence that attracts the highest penalties and punishment. It involves the theft of another person’s ideas or words, lack of acknowledging the source, poor quotation of sources, as well as presenting the work as own to instructors. Every author’s original work that gets expressed in some way gets considered as intellectual property that is under the protection of the copyright laws of the United States. This offence is serious, and all scholars and learners should be keen on avoiding it by all means. Ways of preventing plagiarism include consultations with the professor or lecturer, adequately planning for a paper or book in advance, acknowledging sources and checking individual papers in plagiarism sites.

Mathematics is an important subject in all disciplines and in pursuing all careers; hence vital to have excellent performance in the subject. However, this is not the case as students always perform poorly and get disadvantaged in many ways. There are various Math study skills that when adopted would result in high grades in Mathematics courses including IME550. The list gets provided below together with the correct approach to problem-solving in Mathematics, studying Math and undertaking Math tests.

Math study skills for better grades entail the on absenteeism to Math classes. It gets attributed to several reasons such as the factor that the instructors cover large Math sections in one class and do Math examples during lessons. Hence, missing a single class would result in losing significantly. The instructors also formulate the end of academic year Math tests using the material covered in class, thus attending every day gives a student an added advantage. Attending all classes together with completing homework in time enhances the learner’s understanding of the course material, concepts, problem-solving technique and formulas. The learner also can identify strengths and weaknesses hence determine where to put more effort and time. Attending classes and doing homework prepares the student adequately for Math tests. Getting assistance on weak areas in Math also improves the understanding of Math concepts and material. A student may request for assistance during lesson time, approaching the instructor during non-class hours, consulting fellow student and discussing in discussion groups.

Problem-solving process is a fundamental technique that needs to get learned, understood and mastered for improving an individual’s grades. The process commences by first reading the question careful and understanding what is needed for the learner by the problem. The next step is formulating a suitable plan for the problem. The developed plan is then carefully implemented to attain the set objectives. Lastly, in the problem-solving skills is the review of one’s work to identify mistakes and errors or addition of omissions.

Studying Math is also crucial for a learner as it assists them to prepare adequately for a Math test. Studying Math may involve doing homework or just going through the course content. It is most effective when undertaken many days prior to the test period.

The approach in Math test is vital in determining a student’s grade. A student should go to the exam room well prepared for the test. After receiving the question paper, the student should read the instructions, identify problems which they would be comfortable understanding and then plan their time appropriately. All the work done should be shown clearly and possibly in a step by step arrangement. Erasing of wrong work should be avoided, and if necessary, a single line is most appropriate. After completing the paper, the student should review all the work done, to ensure that all instructions got followed and also identify mistakes and errors.